What is translocation in DNA?
What causes translocation in DNA?
Translocations generally result from swapping of chromosomal arms between heterologous chromosomes and hence are reciprocal in nature (Figure 1) (8,9). DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are prerequisites for such translocations, although little is known about their generation.
Is translocation a DNA mutation?
Translocations. A translocation occurs when a piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This type of rearrangement is described as balanced if no genetic material is gained or lost in the cell. If there is a gain or loss of genetic material, the translocation is described as unbalanced .May 10, 2021
What does translocation mean?
Definition of translocation
: the act, process, or an instance of changing location or position: such as. a : the conduction of soluble material (such as metabolic products) from one part of a plant to another.
What is the process of translocation?
Translocation is the process within plants that functions to deliver nutrients and other molecules over long distances throughout the organism. ... The predominant nutrients translocated are sugars, amino acids, and minerals, with sugar being the most concentrated solute in the phloem sap.
What is an example of translocation?
Examples of these translocations include the activation of the MYC oncogene by the t(8;14) translocation in Burkitt's lymphoma and of the gene by a t(1;14) translocation or a SIL gene translocation on chromosome 1p32 in T-ALL. Most of the chromosomal translocations observed in T-ALL are of this type.
What are the three types of translocation?
1. simple translocations (one break involved) 2. reciprocal translocations (two breaks involved) 3. shift type translocations (three breaks involved) 4.
What are the types of translocation?
There are two main types of translocations: reciprocal and Robertsonian. In a reciprocal translocation, two different chromosomes have exchanged segments with each other. In a Robertsonian translocation, an entire chromosome attaches to another at the centromere.
What is Emanuel syndrome?
Emanuel syndrome is a chromosomal disorder that disrupts normal development and affects many parts of the body. Infants with Emanuel syndrome have weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and fail to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive).Sep 8, 2020
How are translocations written?
Denotation. The International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN) is used to denote a translocation between chromosomes. The designation t(A;B)(p1;q2) is used to denote a translocation between chromosome A and chromosome B.
Why is translocation in plants important?
It is an important process in plants because the source of production i.e., the location of photosynthesis is not the same as the site at which nutrients are stored; as a result it is essential that the nutrients be moved throughout the plant via translocation otherwise the food produced in the leaves will not be able ...
Are humans polyploidy?
Humans. True polyploidy rarely occurs in humans, although polyploid cells occur in highly differentiated tissue, such as liver parenchyma, heart muscle, placenta and in bone marrow. Aneuploidy is more common.
What is another name of translocation?
Words related to translocation
about-face, alteration, change, conversion, deviation, move, transfer, transformation, variation, bend, changeover, deflection, displacement, double, fault, modification, passage, permutation, rearrangement, removal.
What is translocation in biochemistry?
In genetics, the movement of a portion of one chromosome to another; in protein synthesis, the transfer of the newly elongated peptidyl-tRNA from the amino acyl site to the peptide site of a ribosome; in cell biology, the movement of a molecule across a barrier or between cytosol and membrane surface.
What is translocation and transpiration?
Translocation is the movement of water, electrolytes, or prepared food materials within a plant from one region to another. This is usually done by xylem and phloem. Transpiration is the process by which water vapor is lost to the atmosphere from living plants, mainly through the leaf surfaces.
How does DNA transcription and RNA translation occur?
- It actually consists of two processes: transcription and translation. Transcription takes place in the nucleus. It uses DNA as a template to make an RNA molecule. RNA then leaves the nucleus and goes to a ribosome in the cytoplasm, where translation occurs. Translation reads the genetic code in mRNA and makes a protein.
What are translocation mutations?
- Translocations are chromosome mutations in which chromosome segments, and the genes they contain, change positions. Translocations can occur within a chromosome (intrachromosomal) or between chromosomes (interchromosomal).
What is a nonreciprocal translocation?
- Nonreciprocal translocation. In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes. A gene fusion may be created when the translocation joins two otherwise-separated genes, it is detected on cytogenetics or a karyotype of affected cells.
What is translocation in the chromosomes?
- A form of chromosome mutation in which a detached part of a CHROMOSOME becomes attached to another chromosome or parts of two chromosomes may be joined. ...
- Of a gene when a new copy of the gene appears at a location on the genome remote from the original location.
- The movement of a RIBOSOME along a MESSENGER RNA molecule from one CODON to the next.